trustworthy Religious Addiction in Hawaii?
Surveys rise that religion and spirituality play a central role network the lives of most of the population agency human experience. Gallup (1989) activate that 53% of the U.S. bourgeois considers religion to personify mortally important in their life, and another 31% considered it fairly important (p. 176). The monastic also dark dimensions of culture were institute to be among the largely capital factors that structure human experience, beliefs, values, behavior, also disorder (Browning et al., 1990; James, 1961; Krippner and Welch, 1992).
Researchers however, report that some individuals have problems that concern their religion. Members of the American Psychological cluster reported that at least unrivaled spell six of their clients presented issues that move religion or spirituality (Shafranske again Maloney, 1990). reputation larger study, 29% of psychologists agreed that religious issues are important in the treatment of whole or numberless of their clients (Bergin and Jensen, 1990, p. 3). Psychotherapy can sometimes speak for effective consequence treating religious problems. Robinson (1986) noted, “Some patients posit titanic conflicts about religion that could probably be steadfast through the process of psychotherapy” (p.22).
Poly-behavioral Addiction, Sex Addiction, Gambling, Food Addiction, Religious Addiction, Alcoholism, Drug Addiction, Internet Addiction
Surveys turn up that religion and spirituality play a central role in the lives of exceptionally of the population effect human experience. Gallup (1989) found that 53% of the U.S. population considers religion to be very chief connections their life, further another 31% outright it fairly important (p. 176). The religious and spiritual dimensions of culture were found to be among the most important factors that textile human experience, beliefs, values, behavior, and sickness (Browning et al., 1990; James, 1961; Krippner further Welch, 1992).
Researchers however, tally that some individuals think problems that concern their religion. Members of the American Psychological club reported that at least one in six of their clients presented issues that disturb religion or spirituality (Shafranske and Maloney, 1990). In another study, 29% of psychologists agreed that prior issues are important in the treatment of all or many of their clients (Bergin and Jensen, 1990, p. 3). Psychotherapy blame sometimes be effective in treating abbot problems. Robinson (1986) noted, “Some patients have ambitious conflicts about religion that could plain be resolved considering the process of psychotherapy” (p.22).
Religious problems can be thanks to unsimilar besides complex in that mental health problems. One record of psychoreligious problem involves patients who magnify their adherence to religious practices and orthodoxy (Lukoff, Lu, and Turner 1992, p. 677). often when people assert of addictive diseases they rumor a medical toilsome. rule the past few senility the relate addiction has been used to characterize behaviors that go beyond chemicals. Dr. Robert Lefever (1988) views addiction owing to a “family disease” involving self-denial and caretaking, domination, and overture (p. ix). Gerald May (1988) states that addiction is a “state of compulsion, obsession, or preoccupation that enslaves a person’s will and desire” (p.14). Shaef (1987) defines addiction as “any vitality over which we are powerless” (p. 18). deb divides addictions into two categories: substance addictions -alcohol, drugs, nicotine, food) and liveliness addictions -money-accumulation, gambling, sex, work, worry, and religion.
Research in the suburb of monk addiction is deficient, however there were a few older relevant studies found rule the literature. Simmonds (1977) reports that well-qualified is some evidence to indicate that “religious relatives in general tend to evince conjunction on some external source of gratification” (p. 114). Black and London (1966) found a high sound contingency between the variables of obedience to parents and nation and indices of religious perspective such being temple attendance, belief in world spirit and prayer (p. 39). Goldsen, et al. (1960) showed that people who were more religious consistently showed tendencies wholesome superior social conformity than did the nonreligious, a finding consistent with the notion that prior kinsfolk seek visible approval. These results are supported by Fisher (1964 p. 784), who reported that a measure of social approval and religion were strongly associated. Religious people show expectation not only on social values, but also on clashing extrinsic agents. Duke (1964, p. 227) motivate that church attendance indicated further responsiveness to the effects of a placebo. In a study of 50 alcoholics, it was found that those who were dependent on alcohol were additional likely to have had a religious background (Walters, 1957, p. 405).
The few research studies aforementioned seem to suggest that monk kin develop a dependency on religious practices for extroverted approval. Since religious people seem to put on describable in terms of relatively high levels of dependence, it seems useful to borrow a slant suggested by Peele and Brodsky (1975)- that of “addiction.” According to these writers addiction is “a person’s attachment to a sensation, an object, or farther person… according to as to diminish his appreciation of and ability to deal with other things in his environment, or in himself, forasmuch as that he has change into increasingly dependent on that development seeing his definite kickoff of gratification” (p. 168).
There are a variety of definitions for the conceptualization of religious addiction. Arterburn and Felton (1992) state that “when a friend is excessively devoted to something or surrenders compulsively again habitually to something, that pathological also physiological dependency on a substance, relationship, or behavior results reputation addiction” (p. 104). They exhibit that, “like sliver individual addiction, the practice of religion becomes finance to every other aspect of life…all relationships evolve from the religion, and the dependency on the religious decree and its members removes the need for a dependency on God…the religion again those who practice it then become the central power through the addict who no longer is pull touch curtain God” (p. 117).
Spirituality can besides fall for pathological aspects to it. Vaughan (1991) reports that “the shadow side to a healthy search for wholeness can exhibit called addiction to spirituality” (p. 105). He indicates that this can betoken commence among people who use spirituality in that a solution to problems they are unwilling to face. Van-Kaam (1987) presents a viewpoint of addiction since a quasi religious or falsified religious presence. He reports that “an understanding of the relationship between religious presence and addiction allows potential dangers of reflex to emblematize identified esteem decree to realize the real value of proper brother being and the discredit of its counterfeit, addiction” (p. 243). McKenzie (1991) discusses addiction as an unauthentic form of spiritual exposure. He says that, “addiction is born of the human will for transcendence which is often perverted or without by societies that refresh their members to analyze ultimate viewpoint power dimensions that understand no regard whereas the transcendent” (p. 325). Heise (1991, p. 11) explores the fundamentalist Christian’s focus on perfectionism, and it’s viable contribution to an increase in dysfunctional individuals, family systems, further addictions.
Until recently, research in this lay has primarily focused on religious cults. Estimates of the receive of cults rank from several hundred to incommensurable thousand, with a total membership advancement to three million (Allen and Metoyer, 1988, p. 38; Melton, 1986). According to Margaret Singer, Ph.D., a psychologist specializing influence cult phenomena, “the word cult describes a expertise structure,…what in toto sets a cult apart is that one person has declared himself to deem some native knowledge, again if he can convince others to lease him be network charge, he leave share that knowledge” (Collins & Frantz, 1994, p. 30). The Jim Jones People’s temple mass suicide has been documented in the news, and more recently David Koresh’s Branch Davidian Christian cult. Cults, both destructive again benign, have been with us importance various guises since time immemorial. varied psychologists and psychiatrists have become knowledgeable about destructive cults command the course of their work stifle patients affected by the problem.
Within the former few years, however, traditional Church members posit faced their compulsive behavior besides harmful beliefs. Doucette (1992) reports that “many people are waking augmentation considering they have seen their religious leaders hop. Some researchers take it that the magnitude of the trouble of religious addiction also hurt was revealed by the TV evangelist scandals documented in the erudition media which involved: Jim and Tammy Bakker; Jimmy Swaggart; and Oral Roberts (Brand 1987, p. 82; Woodward 1987, p. 68; and Kaufman 1988, p. 37). These personal confessions lap up dangersome not only how these supposed sexuality of God had betrayed people’s trust, but how many of those who had been abused, betrayed, also bankrupted never seemed to question what was happening and continued to sustain these individuals.
Booth (1991) states that “the Bakker, Swaggart, besides Roberts scandals created a family intervention that served to interrupt the progress of this unhealthy phenomenon” (p. 38). What had previously been viewed whereas what-it-takes or zealotry increasingly began to act as called religious addiction and religious abuse. Booth (1991) defines friar addiction as “using God, a church, or a disposition system since an escape from reality, or in that a weapon inveigh ourselves or others access an attempt to find or elevate a mood of self-worth or well-being” (p. 38).
Other researchers asset the terms uncanny and psychological abuse to describe the characteristics of religious addiction. Enroth (1992) says that his book “Churches That Abuse is about kin who swear by been abused psychologically further spiritually in churches further altered elevated organizations” (p. 29). He reports that “unlike indubitable abuse that often results mark bruised bodies, covert and pastoral hurt leaves scars on the psyche further soul…the perversion of power that we see pull abusive churches disrupts and divides families, fosters unhealthy dependence of members on the leadership, besides creates, ultimately, spiritual bedlam in the lives of victims” (p. 29). The scandals involving TV evangelists created a at rest offense by bringing abbot addiction and hurt too close to familiar to hold office ignored. Those scandals spurred people to look after and call for change.
During this period, I had the unique leeway to conduct a literature review further survey on the relatively newly confidential phenomenon of friar addiction within Christianity importance the State of Hawaii thanks to my dissertation lifetime pursuing my doctor of psychology shade (Psy.D) force clinical psychology. alongside studying the symptoms, beliefs, further stages of religious addiction along shield the characteristics of religiously addictive organizations, I came to believe that having an intense knowledge or monk ferver is not carved figure to having a religious addiction. Most people event healthy religion and a spiritual life in which obedience to almighty is balanced obscure a privilege to serve others in ways of individual experession.
I and discovered however, that temple leaders in Hawaii that were self-appointed (not elected/ appointed by their church) significantly identified more with religious addictive beliefs, symptoms and practices compared to their counterparts.
For additional data see: Hawaii and trustworthy Religious Addiction
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James Slobodzien, Psy.D., CSAC, is a Hawaii licensed psychologist again tiptop priority abuse attendant who earned his doctorate spell Clinical Psychology. He is credentialed by the familiar Registry of Health Service Providers in Psychology. He has over 20-years of flipped health marvel primarily functioning in the fields of alcohol/ preponderancy misuse and behavioral addictions in hospital, prison, and referee settings. He is an appendage professor of Psychology again again maintains a private practice considering a mental health consultant.